An Indian Civilizational Perspective

Many Universes (Multi-verses) and Assymetric Time

The problem with understanding of creation is that it is just an interplay between Space and Time. These two are inextricably linked to our creation – past and future. Despite what we think the scientists claim, the truth is that we are nowhere close to understanding to the absolute micro and the absolute macro.

Now, given the inconsistencies between how the past and future might be linked and the effects of entropy, there seems to be new thinking making rounds everyday. Here is another thinking that this article in Scientific American talks about – that Universe maybe not just be expanding and contracting but also maybe turning inside out when it reaches one “end” just like you could turn a balloon inside out and blow it from the other side. On both the sides it might seem as though this was the only experience little realizing that the arrow of time not be a straight line after all!

Some cosmologists imagine that the universe went through a “bounce.” Before this event, space was contracting, but instead of simply crashing to a point of infinite density, new physical principles—quantum gravity, extra dimensions, string theory or other exotic phenomena—kicked in to save the day at the last minute, and the universe came out the other side into what we now perceive as the big bang. Though intriguing, bouncing cosmologies do not explain the arrow of time. Either entropy was increasing as the prior universe approached the crunch—in which case the arrow of time stretches infinitely far into the past—or the entropy was decreasing, in which case an unnatural low-entropy condition occurred in the middle of the universe’s history (at the bounce). Either way, we have again passed the buck on the question of why the entropy near what we call the big bang was small.

Instead let us suppose that the universe started in a high-entropy state, which is its most natural state. A good candidate for such a state is empty space. Like any good high-entropy state, the tendency of empty space is to just sit there, unchanging. So the problem is: How do we get our current universe out of a desolate and quiescent spacetime? The secret might lie in the existence of dark energy.

In the presence of dark energy, empty space is not completely empty. Fluctuations of quantum fields give rise to a very low temperature—enormously lower than the temperature of today’s universe but nonetheless not quite absolute zero. All quantum fields experience occasional thermal fluctuations in such a universe. That means it is not perfectly quiescent; if we wait long enough, individual particles and even substantial collections of particles will fluctuate into existence, only to once again disperse into the vacuum. (These are real particles, as opposed to the short-lived “virtual” particles that empty space contains even in the absence of dark energy.)

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