Saturday, March 23, 2019

Discussion on Bhagwad Gita: Chapter 1; Verse 2 through 6

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दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा।
आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत्॥१-२॥

Hindi
हे राजन, पाण्डवों की सेना व्यवस्था देख कर दुर्योधन ने अपने आचार्य के पास जा कर उनसे कहा।

Brajbhasha / ब्रजभाषा
दिव्य नयन माहीं संजय ,
जस देख रहे, तस् बोल रहे,
दुरजोधन पाण्डुन व्यूह मयी,
सेना लखि द्रोण सों बोल रहे

English
Looking at the Armies, Duryodhan went over to his teacher and said..

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पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम्।
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता॥१-३॥

Hindi
हे आचार्य, आप के तेजस्वी शिष्य द्रुपदपुत्र द्वारा व्यवस्थित की इस विशाल पाण्डू सेना को देखिये।

Brajbhasha / ब्रजभाषा
हे गुरुवर ! व्यूहमयी ठाड़ी,
पाण्डु के पुत्रन की सेना.
द्रुपद सुतन ने जाहि रच्यो,
जुद्ध इनहीं सों तो होना

English
Sir, please see the large army which has been specially lined up by your illustrious student, Dhrishtadyumna.

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अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि।
युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः॥१-४॥
धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान्।
पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः॥१-५॥
युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान्।
सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः॥१-६॥

Hindi
इसमें भीम और अर्जुन के ही समान बहुत से महान शूरवीर योधा हैं जैसे युयुधान, विराट और महारथी द्रुपद, धृष्टकेतु, चेकितान, बलवान काशिराज, पुरुजित, कुन्तिभोज तथा नरश्रेष्ट शैब्य। विक्रान्त युधामन्यु, वीर्यवान उत्तमौजा, सुभद्रापुत्र (अभिमन्यु), और द्रोपदी के पुत्र – सभी महारथी हैं।

Brajbhasha / ब्रजभाषा
यही सेना माहीं धनुर्धारी,
अर्जुन और भीम सों वीर महे,
जस सात्याकि और विराट महारथ
राजा द्रुपद सों वीर अहे ॥१-४॥

चेकितान वीर और धृष्टकेतु ,
पुरजित बलि काशी राजहूँ को.
नर मांहीं विशेषहूँ शैव्य अहे ,
कुंती भोज सों वीरहूँ को ॥१-५॥

बलवीर बलिष्ठ युधामन्यु,
द्रौपद के पाँचहुँ पुत्र महे.
अभिमन्यु पुत्र सुभद्रा को,
उत्तमौजा सों वीरहूँ तत्र रहे ॥१-६॥

English

In this Army, there are many brave warriors of Bheem and Arjun’s caliber, such as Yuyudhaan, Virat, the Great Warrior Drupad, Dhrishtketu, Chekitan, brave Kashiraj, Purujit, Kuntibhoj and great among human beings, Shaibya. Great Yudhamanyu, brave Uttamaujas, Subhadra’s son Abhimanyu, and the sons of Draupadi – All the brave warriors are there.

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Discussion
What we have here is an interesting set of characters and a strange situation on our hands!

Let’s get our introductions to the cast of characters that Duryodhan talks about.

Dhrishtadyumna (means daring or great) was the son of King Draupada (King of Panchal) and brother of Draupadi (wife of the Pandavas) and Shikhandi. Shikhandi was born a woman (Shikhandini) but was raised as a man and had her sex “exchanged” with a Yaksha to become a man until he died, after her wife rejected her on knowing her truth. After the sex change, Shikhandini went back as Shikhandi and lived a man’s life until his death. Shikhandi / Shikhandini had taken this birth to avenge the insult by Bhishma and vowed to kill him, after in a previous birth she (as Amba) was humiliated by Bhishma when Amba proposed him. Bhishma had decided never to marry.

Yuyudhaan, also known as Satyaki, was from Shri Krishna’s Yadava-Vrishni clan. He had trained under Drona along with Arjun and other Pandavas and had stunned Drona once by breaking his bow 101 times. It was Yuyudhaan who had accompanied Shri Krishna to Hastinapur on the last Peace Mission on October 21, 3126 BCE. Interestingly, Satyaki and Kritavarma were two Yadava fighters, who ended up fighting on the opposite sides. Kritavarma joined the Kauravas, while Satyaki joined the Pandavas. During Mahabharat, Bhurisravas and Satyaki fought a terrible battle where the former was about to kill a defenseless Satyaki when Arjun shot Bhurisravas and cut his arm off. Satyaki, then gets up and kills Bhurisravas, for which he is condemned. Kritavarma, on the other hand, ended up killing the sons of Panchali (Draupadi) and the Pandavas in a disgraceful night attack. Many years after the war, as Krishna’s time on earth was coming to an end, Kritavarma and Satyaki both get involved in a drunken brawl and get killed along with their other warriors. Thus with the death of Shri Krishna, the Yadava clan comes to an end.

Virat was from the Fishermen’s Dynasty called Matsya dynasty. A Chedi king, Uparichara – a Paurava king (of Puru dynasty) had 5 sons of queens and one son and a daughter from women in Fishermen’s community.. The male child, Virat, grows up to become the ruler and establishes the Matsya dynasty. The fisherman daughter moves to banks of Yamuna from Saraswati (as it was drying up) in the Kuru Kingdom. Kuru king Santanu’s wife Satyavati was from this fishermen’s community. Kuru kings Chitrangada and Vichitravirya were sons of Satyavati – the Queen from the fishermen community. In turn Pandavas and Kauravas were grandsons of Vichitravirya. King Virat of the Matsya dynasty had its capital in Viratnagar, which is current day Bairat in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Meenas, who are today the Scheduled Castes are the descendants of Virat. King Virat was also the father in law of Abhimanyu – son of Arjun. When the Pandavas were exiled for 13 years, they spent most of that time in the kingdom of King Virat.

Chekitana was son of Dhrishtaketu, Raja of the Kekayas, who again was the ally of Pandavas. Chekitan is a gotra of the Jats of today from Gujranwala.

Purujit was the Kunti’s father.

Yudhamanyu was from Draupadi’s Panchal royal family. His main task was to save Arjun from all the flanks and was assisted by Uttamaujas. He was unharmed during the war but was finally killed in the night attack by Kritavarma and Ashwathama.

A few things stand out from these verses:

In most conflicts – of mind and of body – it is not easy to distinguish between ‘Us” and “Them”. If your mind is looking for such meaningless distinctions, then it will more often end up in a mess. For, whatever we call “Them” – has a part of “Us” and vice versa. There is no clean cut distinction. There cannot be any. In this war, the two sides had friends fighting from opp